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Tawhîd Al-Asma’ Was-Sifat (Islâmic Monotheism of Allâh’s Names and Qualities) is to perform Monotheism for Allâh in His Names and Descriptions, and this should happen by confirming what He has confirmed among Names and Descriptions for Himself in His Book, or what His Messenger ﷺ has confirmed to Him as well; without any Tahrif (distortion) or Ta’til (suspension), or Takyif (adaptation), or Tamthil (likening). And what follows are the Rules of Names and Qualities.

First Rule: Names of Allâh are all Best Names and His descriptions are all Superior and Perfect,

 He says,

 “ وَلِلَّهِ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَىٰ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ‎﴿٦٠﴾” 

 “..and for Allah is the highest attribute. And He is Exalted in Might, the Wise.”,(Quran 16:60)

 and He says, 

In Surah Al-A’raf Ayah 180 it says:

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا ۖ وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ ۚ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ‎﴿١٨٠﴾

“And to Allah belong the best names, so invoke Him by them. And leave [the company of] those who practice deviation concerning His names. They will be recompensed for what they have been doing.”


Second Rule: Names and Descriptions of Allâh are all Tawkifiah (suspended in word and meaning as they were descended nothing more and nothing less), and the reference in them is just the Noble Book of Allâh and the Sunnah; and they are not limited to a certain number, but rather some of them only were known. Allâh said,

 قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ‎﴿٣٣﴾

{Say (O Muhammad r): The things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are: shameful deeds, whether open or secret; sins and trespasses against truth or reason; assigning of partners to Allâh, for which He has given no authority; and saying things about Allâh of which you have no knowledge.} (Quran 7:33)


And said, 

وَلَا تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۚ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَٰئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولًا ‎﴿٣٦﴾‏

And pursue not that of which you has no knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing, or of (feeling in) the heart will be inquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).(Quran 17:36 )


Third Rule: it is forbidden to confirm a Name or a Description to Allâh by likening,

for Allâh said, 

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ۖ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ ‎﴿١١﴾‏

 There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the All-Seer All-Hearer,(Quran 42:11 )

and He said, 

فَلَا تَضْرِبُوا لِلَّهِ الْأَمْثَالَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ‎﴿٧٤﴾‏ ۞

 Invent not similitudes for Allâh: for Allâh knows, and you know not.(Quran 16:74)

Likewise, it is forbidden to deny a Name or a Description to Allâh which is already found in the Qur’ân or in the Sunnah because this is Ishrak (Polytheism) with Allâh and Taateel (suspension) to His Names and Descriptions, the matter that leads to distort Divine scriptures, or may lead to its denial and assimilation of Allâh with His creatures.


Fourth Rule: the meanings of Allâh’s Names and Descriptions are well known but no body knows their manner of action except Allâh.

Allâh said,

 يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا ‎﴿١١٠﴾‏ ۞

But they shall not compass it with their knowledge.(Quran 20:110)


Fifth Rule: similarity of names does not mean at all the similarity of the named. This is because Allâh has named Himself with Names, which could be applied to some of His creatures, and so as to descriptions like hearing and seeing, but not the hearer is like the Hearer and not the seer is like the Perceiver.